The Invisible Hammer
Scale is the factor that relates different objects according to their size. For designers participating in the creation of objects, from as small as a chair to as large as a city, an intuitive understanding of scale is of paramount importance. Designing could be thought of as the definition of relationships of scale that transcend categorical boundaries. A design imposes a human-made ordering system, a creation of the imagination upon the world of real physical objects.
An artist can have an intuitive sense of scale that makes these relationships of scale seem “easy” or inevitable, but for an architect there is yet a further step: that of relating the created system to the size of our human body and our psychological understanding of size. As Le Corbusier intuited, an artist can afford to paint the wheels of the cannon square to suggest the futility of war, but for an architect all wheels are always round. An architect's rebellion requires a more subtle touch.
Suffering from a cultural trend towards increasing abstraction, architecture is under pressure to decouple from site and specificity of place, aspects which give meaning to the size of the architectural object.
“Computer-aided design” is threatening to make hand drawing a thing of the past, robbing us of the immediate capacity of the hand to convey to the work the wisdom intuitively and ancestrally stored in the body. The capacity of digital drawings to move seamlessly (and often imperceptibly) between different scales undermines a designer’s instinctive understanding of big and small.
Some see in this an opportunity for freedom, a deliberation from the limitations reality places upon us and the things we make. But gravity always wins. Furthermore, without it, architecture would be meaningless. It is said the Hemingway blew his brains off with a shotgun because “his body had betrayed him,” but deliverance from the limitations of the body would also mean impotence since Hemingway couldn’t have written any of his works without the poetic sense of the limitations stored in his body, including its potential demise.
Danger lies not in wanting to be free, that is the most understandable of human desires. The danger lies in believing that freedom is actually an attainable goal. The attractive figure of a person fighting odds with the knowledge that it is both a lost cause and the only way to live, gives way to the arrogant and somewhat stupid image of someone thinking they can actually cheat death.
The sense of scale we seek is not an abstract one but the scale of the familiar, of what we have known but shall redefine anew with every act of design, defamiliarizing it, and seeing it again for the first time. Normally, the object is used mindlessly, as the philosopher would have it when describing the carpenter’s hammer: “ready-at-hand,” an extension of the body that does not call attention to itself unless it breaks or unless we are overtaken by a meditative mood.
The tendency towards abstraction is a manifestation of our desire for order, not a force of evil or an expression of the inhuman. Actually, the appeal of abstraction is the manifestation of the most human of feelings: the fear of death. Every morning in the shower as we plan our day between towel and toothbrush, we determine to “do things well,” imagining that if we are careful and follow the rules, we can cheat misfortune.
A refined sense of scale is a tool of design that mediates between conception and execution, between intelligence and intuition. The abstract contributes a vision that coordinates the different sizes of things into a harmonious whole, while the real informs these sizes with the way things want to be.
Bergson divided our human faculties into intelligence to understand space, the dimension of our bodily life, and intuition to understand time, the dimension of our spiritual life. The miracle of architectural design is that capacity to embody the spiritual into the physical, just as a personality can be expressed in a face.
Perhaps being able to design could mean having the capacity to choose the right tools for the wrong job, the application of the categories of time upon the dimension of space, of measurable objects. This could amount to an attempt to create objects sized to the scale of our emotions.
It might be that a sense of architectural scale is internalized early in life, as when a child learns her mother tongue. If that were true the scale of the domestic might hold the key to a possible theory of architectural quality, a quality that resonates reflexively with a secret intuition, one we have learned in infancy and don’t even know that we have.
We could then speculate that the house of our childhood is the seed of all good architecture, a seed that might grow to become other kinds of structures such as hospitals, schools or office buildings. Perhaps there is here an “I and Thou” passage from the experience of the emotional to the experience of the shared, a vehicle for architecture to become public and intrinsically belong to all.
When a structure reaches a certain size, it becomes threatened by the specter of monumentality. Architects must find ways of infusing any size of building with the intimacy of the domestic. Irregardless of who “owns” the architecture then, the experience of it becomes the vehicle of a subliminal message: architecture belongs to us all.
2011-2012 Shenzhen Hong Kong Biennale for Urbanism\Architecture, Shenzhen Civic Centre, PR China
13:100 | Thirteen New York Architects Design for
Will the current ubiquitous environmentalism save our cities and the world? Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays it seems like it could. Thursdays and Saturdays it appears rather unlikely. The development of the project for an Ultralight Pavilion in Shenzhen presents to us an opportunity to suspend relative disbelief and attempt an exemplary contribution.
Beyond the quantifiable benefits of “lightness” in architecture as a strategy towards the preservation of scarce resources, the idea of the Ultralight Village appears as a providentially appropriate way to consider the nuances of an interdependence between architecture, the city and the environment.
A work of architecture in the city is traditionally regarded as belonging to one of two types, either a monument or a part of the fabric. The monument of course celebrates momentous events, perpetuates foundational myths or aggrandizes the humanities of celebrated individuals; the fabric is everything else and is supposed to create the context in which the monuments can exist. The monuments are symbols, “exemplary” and artificial moments in the city. Precisely because their role is to perpetuate certain conditions, they are deprived of the possibility of changing—ergo all that stone and bronze. And unchanged, they are confident and certain, the architectural equivalent of an unshakable conviction, or of a faith, they are lifeless. Life is happening elsewhere in the doubt, confusion and chaos that can typically be found in the city’s fabric.
The Ultralight Village of the Shenzhen Biennale is an oxymoron, a self-contradiction both monumental—because anything worth building in a biennale shares a measure of the monumental—and ephemeral. This paradox becomes our guiding principle in the development of this modest work of architecture. This little building can become a salute to the millions of souls living in Shenzhen. Like most other people that live in other gigantic metropolises of the earth, they share a life unfolding amongst the fragments of a larger reality no one understands, and their lives may be sometimes overwhelmed by diffidence and hesitation. This pavilion can be an anti-monument to them, an ephemeral monument for those who do not want to impose their opinion or perpetuate their situation. A pavilion as an ephemeral “monument,” an Oxymoron Pavilion.
The pavilion will be built over a weighted plywood platform and defined by two coiling steel angles of a section of 6cmx6cm, 112 wood structural members of a section of 4cmx4cm and a skin of translucent parachute nylon. At night, interior lights will project shadows of the pavilion’s structure and its visitors over the translucent nylon skin proposing a dynamic “facade” that becomes an announcement of the building’s use. Because the spatial relationship between visitors and interior light sources cannot be predicted or enforced, the conceivably changing size of the projected shadows will create unforeseeable juxtapositions of scale—perhaps the most crucial of considerations in the design of monuments—altering our understanding of the small building and its meaning.
The skeleton of the oxymoron pavilion is made out of two layers of 2cm plywood custom-cut using computer numerically controlled fabrication, a technology that allows both project specificity and eventual mass-production. The pieces are cut with big circular holes to lighten the weight. The dwarfed monumentality of the form and the modesty of the material tooled through advance technology combine to achieve the oxymoronic effect.
The geometry of the structure approximates the structural benefits and material economies of circular structural schemes reducible to tension or compression rings. But the immutable stasis of a circular geometry can, as if contaminated by an awareness of time, be transformed into the spiral’s dynamically changing parameters and theoretical capacity for infinite growth or decline. Compared with the stability of the circle, the spiral suggests a loss of certainty for the future, an Oxymoron Pavilion for the uncertain future of urban life.
The skin of the oxymoron pavilion is made out of a single layer of parachute nylon, a slyghtly translucent fabric that, when back-lit allows faint and diffuse perception of things behind it. The skin works in this project as a retardant agent that slows down the unfolding of experience in order to make it last longer and allowing visitors to move though the space without getting too much information too soon.
Interview conducted by the Architectural League's Gregory
OBRA'S BEIJING GREENISH
1. What was your initial reaction to the invitation? Did you ever consider not
accepting the commission?
Pablo Castro: We were pleased to receive the invitation of course. We could
have been skeptical were it not for the fact that the emailed invitation came
from the office of Herzog de Meuron. From our point of view, their involvement
lent the possibility with credible legitimacy. Like everybody else we are great
admirers of their work. We were quite surprised by the communication, since we
do not know them in person, we have no professional or academic affiliation
with them, we were actually happy to learn that they even knew that we
It never crossed our mind to reject the invitation. This whole issue of
defiance or making some kind of statement by not participating seems to us a
strange position to adopt, in this case. In the real world, restrictions and
constraints abound. Any practicing architect will tell you from experience that
there is never, in truth, any such thing as a perfect project, a perfect
client, a perfect site, etc. Of course there are great clients, great sites,
etc. but it is rare that projects have everything, and any architect who has
serious ambitions knows one has to consciously and purposefully thrive on the
challenge of overcoming such imperfect conditions, it is part of the thrill of
working in a project. It should also be noted that Ordos 100 is part of a
larger whole, an entire city district will be constructed including cultural
and community institutions and also multi-family housing, we feel the entire
picture is not clearly visible here and the project may have been perceived as
hopelessly elitist by some critics when in reality it is not. So we feel it is
too simplistic to fault the commission without knowing the larger whole in
which it is inserted. For our part, we would rather respond with a project that
attempts to propose an improvement on the given conditions, in the most
optimistic manner possible, as long as architectural integrity is not
compromised. You know, one of the points in our eight principles of
Architettura Povera proposed at RISD in 2004 was: "To be a good architect you
have to be gullible."
2. How aware were you of Ai Weiwei's work when you accepted the commission? To
what extent do you think we need to see the Ordos 100 project in the context of
his work thus far?
PC: We were aware of Weiwei's work, his participation in the project provided
for us additional reassurance that we could take this thing seriously and it
wasn't just some kind of "Fairytale". Something we really enjoyed about the
experience of participating in the project was the opportunity to get to know
him personally, we are grateful for that.
There is no doubt somehow this project needs to be seen in the context of
Weiwei's work, but I think that because it is architecture it also transcends
the context of his body of artwork somehow. Architecture is a team effort and
the final results have the indeterminacy that comes with daily inhabitation.
Having said that, you have to think that without Weiwei you and I would not be
having this conversation and the League would not be having this show.
3. Describe how you dealt with designing a private residence for an abstract
PC: Abstraction would not be that much of a problem since you could focus on
some kind of essence of the human experience that would give a residential
project the poetic charge of an universality, but what was asked of the
architects at Ordos was not to design a residence for an abstract client but
something a bit different, something harder I think: each of the architects was
asked to create a house as if it were for themselves.
I have to say that your question seems to imply that a house conceived without
a definite client in mind is somehow less legitimate, we feel tempted to
challenge such a suggestion. What percentage of the houses that get designed in
the world do you think are designed with a specific client in mind? In any
event, I think it is more difficult to design for oneself than it is to design
for anybody else, or even for "nobody", put in such a situation, and assuming
the honesty of the effort, the designer finds there is nowhere to run, nobody
to blame, has to take full responsibility.
I think good architecture fares well the changing of hands, what is truly
essential about the contribution that architecture can make to a human life,
either at the scale of the building or the scale of the city is of benefit to
anyone. The notion that a house needs to be tailor-fitted to someone's every
desire and preconception we see as a functionalist atavism, a little bit like
ergonomics, it has to do with the intention of using the object instead of
living in the space with all the open-ended implications with which life
resists over-planning. I think it misses the point of the best that
architecture can offer which lies more in line with the vitality of the
unexpected, of the yet unknown.
4. To what extent were you designing with Chinese construction techniques and
standards in mind? How is this reflected in your design?
PC: There is nothing particularly Chinese about the mode of construction
proposed for our project. We will build our house with load bearing clay brick
walls, perhaps the oldest building technique on the planet, but in order to
transpose the experience of it from sensibilia to intelligibilia we are
abstracting the expression of its tectonics by finishing the brick with cobalt
blue cement stucco on the exterior and white plaster on the interior. I suppose
the fabrication of the curved glass windows in our project will make use of
Chinese techniques, they will be manufactured by an airplane cockpit factory,
the Xi'An Airplane Industry Group
5. Please describe what is architecturally at stake in your project? What were
you after architecturally?
PC: We hope that what our intentions for the project do not exhaust its
possible meaning, maybe in the end the most valuable contributions of the
project may not have much to do with what we thought we were doing while
designing. I guess we can talk about three different moments of architectural
intention we went through while working on the design of the project.
a) The first one has to do with the indivisibility of inside and outside. The
two most talked about things in the discussions leading up to the project were
first: what kind of urban space will result from this aggregation of individual
designs? and second: who are we designing this for?
Our idea of indivisibility has to do with the first issue and in it we have
tried to elevate this concern from the level of received disciplinary
preconception to that of design concept by boiling down the problem to its most
basic architectural manifestation. At this most elemental level the urban and
the architectural are bonded together on the material surface of their skin
which makes them each other's context of existence. It is commonly thought that
the urban is the place of appearance of architecture, but it can be argued that
it is actually the other way around since it is possible to conceive of
buildings without the urban -suburban buildings are the obvious example- but it
is not conceivable to think of the urban without buildings. In that sense our
project tries to uncover the germ of the urban in architecture itself,
specifically in the walls differentiating interior from exterior and yet
linking them as inseparable on the curvature of the house. These walls can be
read as defining the rooms through a radial sequence of courtyards or, instead,
as defining the house's courtyards through a radial sequence of rooms. This
reversibility is confirmed conceptually at the level of the actual experience
of the wall, when while perceiving its convexity we can't help but also
understand its concavity and the space it contains beyond.
b) The second moment of design intention we called: "captured distance" and
became the name of our project. The idea originally came from a compositional
technique used in ancient Chinese painting, seen in the example of Court Ladies
Preparing Silk, attributed to Song Huizong (1101-1125). This technique relies
on the arrangement over the surface of the picture of human faces that,
directing their gaze in different directions organize the space of the image
endowing it with its characteristic subtle depth. The facades of the proposed
project "look" at each other across the empty courtyards "magnetizing" the
distance between them. The face is of course the locus of the paradoxical
ambiguity of self, both speculating agent and object of its on speculation, a
paradox that is metaphorically replayed in architecture's matter and form.
c) Finally there are two kinds of spaces in the house: some are of polyhedral
geometry—the inside of the "faces" mentioned before—and others of
curved geometry, defining a range that spans between a type of "infinitesimal
determinacy" at one end and a "perceptual indeterminacy" at the other. These
two types of spaces articulate the daily cycle of inhabitation of the house,
with the polyhedral spaces serving as the night spaces—bedrooms—and
the curved spaces as the day ones. In this way, you see, the freedom from the
control or reason that comes with sleep and dream, calls for the sense of
spatial reassurance that can be felt in the polyhedral spaces where we could
imagine ourselves waking up and wondering "where am I?", while during the day
we imagined one being able afford the indeterminacy of a feeling of
open-endedness within curved spaces which invite daydreaming on the changing
chiaroscuro of daylight skipping over the smooth surfaces of white plaster and
the partial concealment of their extension.
6. How do you feel about your participation in the project now that the design
phase is over?
PC: Good and maybe a bit anxious to see the Chinese "Design institute" take our
project into the design documentation phase while we can only watch. It is not
very clear to us how much will we be able to control documentation and
construction and that is a source of concern. We have tried to prepare for this
by proposing a design of uncomplicated construction, from the architectural
point of view, that hasn't been a problem since we don't see our work as
demonstration of the circumstantial capabilities of advanced building or design
technology, our work is not didactic in that way.
7. What do you think of the site plan and the cumulative effect of the Ordos
100 architectural interventions?
PC: I think this aspect of the project is getting so much attention because it
transcends the development project in its more usual form. It is good to keep
in mind that the project was conceived by a conceptual artist, so on the realm
of experience you have the creation of a piece of a new city, with its places
for people to live, its public buildings, its common spaces, etc. and also from
the business point of view, a development project, but from the point of view
of the ideal model being used to go about this development, we encounter a
completely different idea, we feel this is something that is being overlooked.
In the sometimes anxious world of the upstart architect instead this is clear;
I think it appears as an original model for urban development indeed, one, we
have to admit, not without risk for the developer. You can imagine: 100
ambitious young architects from all over the world, some of them without even a
single built building to their name are invited to participate and given almost
total artistic freedom! You would have to either be a total architectural fraud
or have water running through your veins to decline such an opportunity! Just
think of the contrast between this situation and the usual development project,
where the architect is presented with a design recipe for real estate success
that will regulate every aspect of the project.
This brings us to another aspect to consider, that of the freedom given to the
designers. There is only freedom when there is not absolute determination, when
there is an element of uncertainty regarding the final results. It is needless
to say that this is not the known world of the real estate developer. This
element of indeterminacy multiplied by 100 shatters the preconceptions with
which to measure the forecast for architectural results in Ordos and provides a
myriad of changing points of views for an architectural under-standing of the
place. You know the Master Plan by Fake Design has also been criticized, and it
is certainly very different to anything we could have proposed, but I think
that is precisely the point. While the Master Plan design seems to us a bit
laconic in its articulation of public space and apparently strangely stuck
somewhere between the urban and the sub-urban, it should really be considered
as an armature of opportunity for the juxtaposition of a diversity of points of
view, an urban holder of dissent and difference of opinion. After the somewhat
unsettling show of synchronized obedience that was the Beijing Olympics Opening
Ceremony, I am tempted to think that there is nothing that China could use more
of now than freedom, dissent and multiplicity of opinion, no?
8. Can you imagine an equivalent development/situation to the Ordos 100 in the
US? Why, how, or why not?
PC: Since the French Revolution, freedom and multiplicity of opinion have been
a model potentially applicable to the entire planet. Could you imagine the
repercussions of such a project in the US? What if some of our most preeminent
artists became the organizing lead in some of the American residential
developments? Can you imagine Bruce Naumann, Dan Graham and Chris Burden
spearheading their housing projects and enlisting architects from the world
over to conceive them and actually execute them? Does that not sound much more
promising than one more split-ranch suburban development mangling the
countryside or another Trump monstrosity defacing downtown with yet one more
display of mind-boggling banality and horrid taste?
9. Please describe how you think the sheer size of the Ordos undertaking
impacts the role and the position of the architect.
PC: I think the multiplicity of voices proposed imposes a limitation on the
role of the architect. We have used the reduction of breadth as an opportunity
to explore depth. From the point of view of the architect as as craftsman and
creator, the project proposes a field of action limited to the individual
plots. This is truly a exquisite corpse project, but you know, "a roll of the
dice will never abolish chance."
10. Describe your dream commission.
PC: In Salambo, Flaubert talks about Carthage's obsession with the bottom line
as the reason for its inability to aspire to real greatness, say, as in the
example of Rome. Since you are asking about a commission and not simply a
project, I think we should consider here what the architect is looking for in
the client who is commissioning the work. As many young firms, I suppose, we
are looking for that client that would want to take a risk on relatively
untried talent, in order to get something new and unique. The ideal commission
is synonymous with a truly ambitious client, a Roman instead of a
New York, 2 September 2008
BQ Magazine Issue No. 25, 19 June
The city faces a complex difficult future. Vast
worldwide human exodus and the consequent emergence of infrastructure
inadequacies including the difficulties of supplying sufficient fresh water to
satisfy the needs of a growing population, the inadequate disposal of wildly
escalating volumes of waste and the irreversible depletion of natural
resources, loom large as daunting challenges to urban survival. Today we have a
renewed consciousness of the importance of these issues, and they figure
amongst the most important urban design issues upon which hinges the
possibility of a viable urban future, an alternative to an impending age of
massive extinction of animal species and horrifying human suffering.
"Intelligent design", as the form of design that addresses issues of
environmental preservation and the considered management of scarce resources is
called in the jargon of today, has always existed. Architecture has always been
involved with the creation of spaces that perform functional tasks while
elating and inspiring through the ingenious management of scarce resources.
Environmental "sustainability" in design, far from a revolutionary development,
doesn't necessarily transform the practice of architecture into anything
essentially new, but it brings to the forefront of the discussion issues that
should have never been neglected. It is almost scandalous that the
consideration of these issues are now being talked about as some kind of new
design frontier, suggesting that before our time design was more wasteful and
less "intelligent". The question of "intelligent" design, is indeed a question
of "more" and "less", a quantitative rather than a qualitative question,
technical issues converging to the more complex process of architectural and
urban design, regardless of how crucial and important their consideration may
circumstantially become, do not in themselves add anything to our conception of
the essence of architecture.
Any technical consideration, such as an effort towards an environmental
"sustainability", can become the vehicle of poetry in architecture. As a matter
of fact, technical considerations often become the main source of architectural
poetry by fostering a dramatic conflict between desire for architectural
freedom and limited availability of resources. The felicitous resolution of
such conflict is the golden standard of architectural quality and beauty, and
to be achieved requires the adoption of a holistic approach towards design.
Once objectives for technical performance have been established and
quantitative benchmarks adopted, design should step away from the analytical
and seek the synthetic, aspiring to an understanding of reality that includes
simultaneous consideration of its multiplicity though direct intuition.
The context in which the drama of architecture as the physical manifestation of
our efforts for survival has physically changed, and yet the media of
architecture remains always embodied by the same stuff: space; light; geometry;
proportion; color; texture; and sound.
Respect and preservation for the natural environment is architecturally
necessary and yet not sufficient, the mission of architecture remains that of
inspiring, elating, enchanting and mystifying. This long held utopian ideal
aspires to do this not as an exceptional moment in a sea of sameness and sad
mediocrity, but actually to propagate itself and pervade all things, to become
not the exclusive prerogative of the few but the accomplished right of the
many. Not to celebrate the fantastic in honor of the exceptional but, much more
ambitiously, to provide a window into the spiritual depth of the quotidian, an
experience of architecture that can potentially be available to everyone.
New York, 20 May 2008
Interview conducted by BQ Magazine with Pablo Castro from
OBRA Architects to accompany the installation of BEIJING TRIPOD as part of
DC2108: THE POLYCENTRIC CITY
What have been busy with lately?
Pablo Castro: We have been working on an ongoing project for the densification
of cities through a high-rise building type that we developed with the
engineering offices of Werner Sobek in New York: the Tripod Skyscraper. This
is, by the way, the inspiration for our contribution to BLANK 2008. This is a
project originally commissioned by the History Channel for their cycle on the
future of American cities, specifically Washington D.C., and it envisions an
urban future where 50% of the area of the city has been given to urban
eco-parks, the city has been rid of cars, and its density of inhabitation
increased to about twice that of current Hong Kong. The building braces itself
laterally with two diagonal legs, creating urban density through height of
construction and avoiding obstruction of light and views through the use of
very slender proportions, heights of 500 meters tall with footprints of only 20
We are also approaching completion of construction in our Centrifugal Villa, a
1000 square-meter residence in New York, and we are designing the Villa of
Captured Distance in Inner Mongolia as part of ORDOS 100, a project including
100 architects from around the world curated by Ai Weiwei and Herzog de Meuron.
We are also about to start work on a new residence in the jungles of Costa
Rica's Osa Peninsula on the Pacific coast and also on a mixed-use
apartment-hotel in the Palermo district in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Other
current projects include a residence for a carpenter in New York, a residence
for an astronomer in Maine and a non-denominational church and community center
What is your life like working in NYC?
PC: New York is of course a great place to be, there are currently shows
featuring: Colbert, the Whitney Biennial, Jasper Jones and Cai Guo-Qiang. A
Godard retrospective is coming to Film Forum next week. Architects and artists
from around the world come to live in New York and we form our design teams
drawing from a pool with the most diverse international background and
experience, this is something very exiting about the city for us. And yet this
place that we love and that used to be be a great manufacturing town has to a
large extent become a city of bankers, boutiques and beauty spas, so... we find
ourselves dreaming of a city as a great place where still one can make things,
and make plans to open an OBRA Architects affiliate in Beijing.
In your opinion, what type of artist or architect are you?
PC: I think our work is at odds with the idea of stylistic schools. Architects
can be compared to farm animals (with apologies to both architects and farm
animals). We show a propensity to gather-up in herds and move in the same
direction thinking we are simply obeying the zeitgeist. A little weary of that
inclination, at OBRA we try to belong to no clubs, endorse no commonly held
theories and, more than anything else remain vigilant to avoid the infection of
our work by fashion or a pre-packaged style. Cross fertilization and positive
influence may possibly be desirable sometimes, but we feel we'll get bored if
we try to work on two separate projects that are too much alike, we figure the
ennui should be much worse if the model of this repetition either conceptual or
formal is not even one of our own projects, but belongs to some fashionable
architectural idea of the moment.
Could you describe your project in this year’s Blank?
PC: Two six-meter-tall steel tripod constructions stand across each other in
the gallery. These define a geometry in space that is both precise and in
constant change, as the body moves between and around them, entering and
circling about the charged distance captured in-between.
What is your view on "Art for (to serve) the people"?
PC: Art exposes the things hidden, alighting everyday life and rescuing people
from boredom and suicide. Latin American architect and engineer Eladio Dieste
used to say that when people are separated from art or surrounded by ugly
buildings they develop malign tumors, become seriously ill, and eventually die.
If he was right, Art and Architecture may be our best hope for immortality.
What is your view on "Life is the source of Art"?
PC: Life may be the source of Art and also of everything else, no? We have no
way of knowing if what goes unperceived actually exists, without human life
there is no consciousness and no perception, only nothingness. The question may
also be a mute point and considered an example of what Henri Bergson called a
"badly formulated question," an attempt to dissect and analyze things that are
inseparable, the indivisible antinomy of life and its other (Art). Life is
engagement and participation, art is contemplation and expression.
What is the single most important environmental event in your memory?
PC: I am not really sure about what you mean by "important environmental
event." A memorable one in my life was perhaps the uproar of the bolder-turning
deluge of a seasonal river coming down its course for the first time in summer,
this was up in the Andes mountains and I was about 6 years old. My grandfather
dragged me out of bed at 3 AM and we both ran to the edge of the river to watch
the surge go by. I can also clearly remember the penumbral mystery of the
nordic white nights or the regularity of the daily arrival of torrential
tropical rain every afternoon between 6 and 7 in the islands off the coast to
the south of Brasil. If what you mean is an event produced by humans that had a
memorable environmental impact, what comes to mind is the collapse of the World
Trade Center buildings a few blocks away from our studio in Chinatown.
Suspended in the air of the neighborhood, the acrid mix of dust and smoke
lingered in our noses and throats for months.
When did the New Yorkers become aware of and act on global environment? What
did they do?
PC: Who knows what New Yorkers are aware of? The issue of the preservation of
the natural environment is fashionable now, in a certain sense it is a bit
tedious since, in architecture, it is being used as a smoke screen to hide a
lack of architectural ideas. But committment to the preservation of the
environment should be a given, a minimum standard. Perhaps this is at least a
turn for the better as far as what we can reasonably expect from what is known
as "public opinion." It is possible that a lot of people have become conscious
of the deterioration of the environment and its effects on climate change
because the issue has been adopted by the media and incontrovertible scientific
facts about climate change are being widely disseminated. Another factor may be
that, since the Bush administration has consistently derided issues of
environment protection and they are now at an all time low in prestige and
credibility, a lot of people in the United States are now embracing the view
that the environment is important. Paradoxically, maybe nobody has done more
for the protection of the environment than what the Bush administration did by
declaring itself against it.
Did environmental concern alter your present way of life?
PC: I grew up in a remote area of Argentina in close contact with the natural
environment, one of my grandfathers owned a vineyard and the other had an
orchard oasis in the middle of the desert that was only reachable by driving
for hours on a dry river. I have always been disturbed by the destruction of
the environment and tried to offer my humble contribution to preservation in
whatever way possible, the only difference is that in the past that behavior
was considered odd and now it seems to be everybody's obsession. I suppose it
is a good thing, no?
How does your work take part in something as real and as urgent as protecting
PC: We like to think of our work as completing what it encounters in the places
we work. Our designs we don't see as objects to be inserted onto a site with
the implication of unaltered universal applicability but actually as an attempt
to balanced the existing with the proposed. We think this attempt to have the
design transcend the proposed object and become immanence of architecture+site
is even suggested by the names of our projects: Aqueduct Housing; Nine Square
Sky; Villa of Multiple Horizons or the Villa of Captured Distance. We work hard
to make our projects perform intelligently in the environment and regularly
collaborate with some of the best climate engineers in the world such as
Transsolar Climate Engineering and Arup New York.
Could you describe an ideal world in the future?
PC: I don't know if an "ideal" future is worth thinking about, maybe it should
involve no pain and even no death, no? That ideal reminds me a little of Brave
New World, I don't know what the limits of "progress" should be, maybe beauty
can only exist in a context of suffering.
May 2008, New York + Beijing
History Channel's City of the Future Design and Engineering Challenge presented in Union Station, DC
CONVERSATIONS WITH CONTEMPORARY ARTISTS
DC2108: THE POLYCENTRIC CITY
Commuting in the city of the FUTURE will be a thing of the past. Most people with administrative or creative jobs will work from home or from shared neighborhood business CENTERS. Because of the increasing robotization of manual labor, most jobs will either be administrative or CREATIVE. Blue collars will fade to white.
Urban traffic, always undesirable, will become mostly unnecessary. People will move about not out of need but out of DESIRE. City planners of the future will seize this opportunity, and push the remaining city travel and transport of goods underground, and the city will return to the PEDESTRIAN. Paradoxically, the emergence of virtual spaces of work will enable the creation of real space in the city, the end of the war between the city and the automobile.
Designed and built for pedestrians the city of the future will naturally articulate into clusters of unique and distinct neighborhoods, identifiable CENTERS OF URBAN LIFE, administration and even energy production. The city of the future will be POLYCENTRIC, articulating into numerous distinctive neighborhoods of WALKABLE size. Climate change imperatives will call for the densification of these centers and residential SUPERTOWERS. New environmental technologies will make them sustainable and architecture will make them enjoyable. This densification of the polycentric Washington DC will free up vast tracks of suburban land for the creation of new urban BIOPARKS and URBAN FARMS.
Washington DC will be the first major world capital to actually reduce the impact of its footprint on the earth, a revolution not less important and inspiring than the democratic one symbolically embodied by the city itself.
Reconciliation with nature will come with the acceptance of the limits between the artificial and the natural and their effective separation.
The survival of our human establishments in the world hinges not only on stopping development of suburban areas, thus protecting the forest and the farm, but also rolling it back. The city must be densified and a regulatory framework need be put in place in order to save the planet from ourselves.
If inhabited areas are rolled back, we would not only create space for the return of the forest and the jungle, but also transform our urban lifestyles. We envision a future in which movement may be desirable but not necessary, telecommunications would allow the concentration of all non-physical work in areas near the home, making commuting a thing of the past.
The proposed densification comes with the challenge of not just a preserved quality of living, but actually an improved one. The desire of contact with nature will be satisfied by the urban presence of the garden, and the densification proposed will hinge on the development of new materials and means of construction, including the possibilities of achieving more efficient structural designs, mullion-less leak-free glass and translucent structural construction materials that support / allow light in / create energy / etc. Technology will allow a densification amounting to better quality of life.
Changes in communication and availability of business tools will allow versatile small entrepreneurs to compete successfully by offering quality and difference instead of quantity and homogeneity.
In the future we will have realized that, in order to survive, we have to acknowledge the distinction between the works of man and nature. This will mean that natural propensities will not be anymore regarded as desirable or necessary, and that as the population of the earth increases and resources become increasingly scarce, we will have to implement regulatory legislation on a global scale in order to survive.
Cities and their current impetus of sprawling expansion, together with the lifestyles they demand and propitiate, are one of the main threats to the survival of the natural environment and consequently of humanity. A radical transformation will be needed to turn things around, and the laissez faire attitude currently dominating the contemporary cities' mode of redevelopment and expansion will have to be reconsidered if we are to turn around processes that already seem frighteningly irreversible.
The city is the locus of possible transformation that could redirect human history to a potentially brighter relationship with the natural environment. In the particular case of Washington DC, this transformation shall be effected not in acknowledgement of natural propensities but in exercising a willful change towards a harmonious relationship between human civilization and the world.
DC, the least economically necessary of cities in the US, was created to give the young Americsan democracy a capital, a city as a physical, inhabitable representation of the revolutionary ideas on the basis of which the country was founded. Today, it is tempting to think that we are besieged by an ecological crisis created by our (naturalistic) evolutionary understanding of phenomena that are actually cultural not unlike the once world-shaking idea of freedom, equality and fraternity. A new revolutionary perspective is required, one that limits our own field of actions in order for the rest of the world to exist. Quite literally, in the case of the cities, we must establish frontiers between the natural and the artificial, and pull back our cities in order for all the rest to also be.
This should be done by establishing distinctions between the URBAN, the RURAL, and the WILD, and by defining clear limitations on the possible transgressions of those limits. The challenge from the point of view of the city will be to effect a drastic densification while also increasing the quality of life.
return to an agrarian past
the "urban village" of the future
pedestrian polycenters with 15-minute walking radius
breaking the urban expanse down into manageable chunks
the urban underground
new WATER strategy
individualized motorized transport
shared IMT stations
to deal with growing population, to redirect isolation and promote diversity
COMMERCE + INDUSTRY
overlapping circles, within the walkable work distance
combined mixed-use residential with commercial
light + air
inventive heat recovery facades
gradual extinction of low density areas
gradual greening of the URBAN PARKS
with population INCREASE and DENSIFICATION, employing gradual means of returning public space to the people
TECHNOLOGY + COMMUNICATION
THE ENVIRONMENT + SUSTAINABLE DESIGN
— SOLAR DECENTRALIZED
— FUEL CELL
— WIND OFFSHORE
— BIOMASS CHP
— GEOTHERMAL / SEASONAL THERMAL STORAGE IN-GROUND
— DISTRICT-CHILLED H20 + STEAM WITH ELECTRICITY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES
WATER FOR DRINKING, AGRICULTURE
TRANSPORTATION (MASS) = NO EMISSIONS
GREEN SPACE FOR RECREATION, GROUNDWATER
— GREEN RECREATION
FOOD SOURCE: URBAN AGRICULTURE, VERTICAL FARMING, ROOFTOP OR WALL
ENERGY USE REDUCTION
WASTE COLLECTION / REUSE / RECYCLE
Union Station, 15 January 2008
Opening introduction of lecture given at the Museum of
Modern Art, Celeste Bartos Theater, on Friday, February 23, 2007
PARTY IN THE HEAT
Thank you for coming tonight.
As we sat down to discuss a possible subject for this lecture, I received an
email from a friend I had not seen for 10 years. We had been classmates during
first year of architecture school, but after that he had transfered to another
school and we had only seen each other very sporadically. He had eventually
graduated and has been practicing architecture since. He happened to see our
work published somewhere and decided to write with a question. His question
was: "How do you design?"
Maybe it was that at the time of our closest friendship we were still students
and such a question would have been the most logical thing in the world, or
perhaps that, being far away, I am a convenient target for a potentially
embarrassing question, but I thought it at once peculiar and sweet that an
architect with 10 years of experience would ask something like that to a peer.
Given that, and for lack of another subject to discuss tonight during this
conversation, we though we could propose my friend's question as the theme for
discussion. Who knows? Maybe we'll learn something and I can email him in the
morning with the answer he is awaiting.
In our work we enjoy the presence of simple prismatic forms, minimal detailing
and practicality of use, in other words the bedrocks of orthodox modernism.
This seems simple enough to deal with, but we feel a bit uneasy (and to be
honest with you a little bit bored too) at surrendering to that simplicity. We
can't help but feel that, to this simple arithmetic of design, we must factor
in an element of relative obscurity.
This does not mean a desire to complicate things unnecessarily since we remain
committed to utmost simplicity, but rather an acknowledgment of the fact that
there is something to reality that insists on defying our efforts to
effectively deal with it in a rational way. Since this is difficult for me to
explain I thought I could resort to an expert to do it for me, and if you allow
me I would like to read a short piece entitled Abuse of Conscience by
the French writer Jean Tardieu. Since unfortunately I don't read French, I came
across this via one of the "dispensable" chapters in Cortazar's
Hopscotch (152), and my translation here is a secondhand one, this has
gone from French to Spanish and then from Spanish to English, so please be
"This house where I live resembles my own in every possible way: the
arrangement of the rooms, the smell of the vestibule, furniture, the inclined
light of the morning, diffused at noon, sly in the evening; everything is the
same, including the paths and trees of the garden, that old rusted door and the
cobblestones of the courtyard. Also the hours and the minutes of the time that
passes are similar to the hours and the minutes of my life. As they swirl
around me, I say to my self: ‘They really seem like them. How much do
they resemble the real hours I live in this moment!’ Personally, even
though I have removed from my house all reflective surfaces, when even then,
the unavoidable glass of a window insists in returning my reflection, I see in
it somebody that resembles me. Yes, he truly looks like me, I recognize him!
But it should not be presumed that it is me! Come on! Everything is fake here.
When they have returned to me my house and my life, then will
I find my true face."
We see Tardieu here regarding the house not simply as where we live,
but more like what we live, a stage for the perplexity at the enigma
of time and its slow destruction of our physical self.
But the question for us is: does this king of consideration fit within the
field of incumbency of our discipline today? By accepting to consider this kind
of thing, are we relinquishing or undermining the experimental freedoms
afforded by a limitation to the programmatic and the technological only?
Clement Greenberg sees a straight line of development from Manet to Pollock,
one of the gradual and relentless abandonment of representation in favor of
finding the true being of things in themselves. That still sounds good to us,
but troubled about this we have consulted Rosalind Krauss and Yve-Allan Bois'
Formless, there, resting on Georges Bataille they discuss Manet's
loosening of the grip of representation not as a renunciation but actually as a
displacement of its traditional role. Representation is weakened and open to
interpretation, it becomes enigmatic, poetic and disturbing.
Once, perusing through the footnotes of Umberto Eco's Open Work
(specifically the chapter on the "Analysis of Poetic Language") we came across
mention of three different modes of expression: descriptive
expression, emotive expression and (what he calls) confused
expression. The two first ones seem straightforward enough, but the last one
interested us since it is said to produce a "philosophical perplexity" through
a "grammatical aberration". It has been said that expression in architecture
today relies on a coherence of form, a keeping one's self to the rationality of
an architectural language, it is tempting to surrender to an iconoclastic
impulse and embrace an idea of "grammatical aberration" as a spark towards
philosophical perplexity to produce a work that thanks to its representational
"weakness" opens itself up to multiple interpretations.
So then here we propose to review together 10 possible points of design
aberration, a sort of Guide to Architectural Perplexity:
1. Literal Translation
2. Big Room
4. Centrifugal Space
5. Curved Space
6. Deliberate Incompleteness
7. Direct Correspondence
8. Laconic Articulation
9. Zim Zum (light+space)
10. Radical Pragmatism
11. Loose Objects (Bonus Point)
New York, 23 February 2007
Interview conducted by Vladimir Belogolovsky with Pablo
Castro from OBRA Architects during the installation of the winning project
BEATFUSE! at P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, Long Island City, New York,
published in ARX Magazine, Moscow, October 2006
BEATFUSE! 2006 PS1 MoMA Young Architects Program Winner
Your project seems to be something like a miniature
planetary model with a variety of climatic and experiential zones. How did this
Pablo Castro: BEATFUSE! was inspired by the way the DJs mix their music. It
accentuates the fact that we are all unique individuals and move to different
beats. The project is a celebration of a momentary fusion of our diversity.
That's why all the shells here are slightly different and they are intersected
in a variety of ways. The project serves as a venue for the annual music
festival Warm Up, which is organized by P.S.1. This event attracts up to
seven[ty] thousand people every summer. And the people who come here represent
a cross section of a very diverse population in New York. It is based on [the]
New York tradition of a block party and it is an opportunity to celebrate New
York's vitality as a multicultural city. So we felt that it was the most
interesting aspect to be celebrated through the design. We wanted to create a
container or a backdrop for this party and present the party in itself as a
work of art. Since it gets very hot in summers here in New York we thought it
would be very important to address in our work the issue of a climatic
condition. This event has become a true public institution for civic enjoyment
and being architecture students that we are, we immediately recognized here a
parallel with one of the oldest architectural institutions for civic enjoyment
- the Roman baths in classical antiquity. There is the same basic idea - the
party takes place in the heat. Curiously enough the museum's courtyard is
divided into three zones which presented an interesting match with three main
zones defining the Roman baths: tepidarium (warm room), caldarium (hot room)
and finally frigidarium (cold room). So we chose to express the space through
the use of interconnected spheres that are lined in three different ways to
produce three temperature zones.
Based on the history of this competition what type of questions did you ask
yourselves when you started working on the project? What did you want to avoid
and what were your goals?
PC: The first question that we asked ourselves was more practical - how can we
realize our ideas and fit into the available budget? It was a challenge, but
also an opportunity to express our thoughts based on the ideas of the Italian
art movement called Arte Povera. It is about a notion that various limitations
of choices are not detrimental to the quality of the project, but can be used
as an advantage. Disciplined focusing on limited resources and choosing the
right materials became the soul of the project. If you don't have too many
choices you have to make the right ones. The things that we wanted to avoid
were to use forms that are seen more sculptural than architectural. In fact,
one of the remarks of the organizers of the competition was: "We don't want a
work of art; we want a work of architecture." In other words the idea was not
to design an object but a space for potential to be inhabited. Because of the
budget limitations we made a conscientious effort to spread the material very
thin and make it perform in a very precise manner to take advantage of the
inherited qualities of various materials.
What kind of innovations - technical or conceptual - are you proposing here?
PC: To us everything became an innovation. For example, we were working
together with our engineers Robert Silman Associates on the design of the
arches and domes. They told us that it would be a very long, elaborate and
ultimately a very expensive process to determine the right materials and their
precise thicknesses. And that first we would have to design everything
ourselves intuitively - through trial and error and experimentation. So these
limited choices forced us to make very precise decisions and selects all
materials and forms because they can perform in a certain way. Many of the
choices we made were done not purely for stylistic reasons and not simply
because we were told what would work best for our engineers, but through very
close analyses and studies of certain qualities and performance of different
materials that we personally explored. We admire what German conceptual artist
Joseph Beuys said: "By producing art we lend our conscience to the things of
the world. So they become our conscience." That's what we are trying to do - we
try to lend our conscience to all materials here and we feel very responsible
for this project. An object is chosen because it can perform in a certain way
and because we are looking for a certain performance. Forms are generated by
particular circumstances and therefore become unique.
How did you react to the news that you won the competition?
PC: We were very happy. The jury was very supportive and enthusiastic during
the presentation. Towards the end Terrence Riley, the jury member said: "Now is
the time for a tough question. How are you going to produce this project for
$70,000?" So Jennifer said: "Well, over the years that we were doing
architecture we haven't made a lot of money, but we made a lot of friends. So
we guarantee you that we can get it done." And that was exactly the way it came
out. A lot of our friends came through and a lot of our people were inspired by
the P.S. 1 message and what P.S. 1 and MoMA stand for. So a lot of people were
very eager to participate and through realizing this project we made a lot of
new friends. A lot of people donated their labor, time, materials and
expertise. And because of it we also worked very, very hard. Right after
winning the competition we started [a] fundraising campaign. We would spend a
lot of time on the phone and every night we would send five or six FedEx
packages with materials about the project. It was very effective. We had raised
additionally about as much as the museum gave us for the project.
What do you think is the real budget here if a lot of the materials and labor
PC: There are certain things here that you can't really quantify. I believe
that when architecture has a soul it has power of being inspiring. For example,
the contractors tell me that they never know where they are going to go next
and what kind of project they are going to work on, but this is something that
is very unique and they really want to prolong it and are willing to put extra
effort. The party that everybody anticipates is already happening at the level
of construction. There is a great sense of comradeship and this experience is
very dear to us and it is a lot more than just learning professionally.
When did you start construction and how long did it take to build this
PC: We didn't start soon enough! Overall duration of construction was going to
be about three months. When our friend Terry Chance, a Brooklyn contractor who
moved to Minneapolis, found out that we [were] selected for the competition he
said "Don't you want me to do a mockup for you?" So he did a few mockups in 1/3
scale which we presented in the photographs. When we won the competition he
offered to help us again to build the actual domes. It was actually a lot
cheaper to build it in Minneapolis than in New York. Also the father of his
office manager happened to have a huge track and helped us to transform all the
pieces to New York. Three of our architects spent a month in Minneapolis
figuring out and supervising the fabrication of all the wood parts and pieces
that needed to be built there. We bought the lattice for the domes and they
[were] produced by using CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling.
This project is not very large but fairly complex. How many people are involved
in helping you get it built?
PC: We have about ten people in our office, about fifteen volunteers for the
duration of construction, ten people working for contractor Terry Chance in
Minneapolis, six people at two CNC milling shops in Minneapolis, three people
in Upstate New York, two project managers from Sciame construction, six [union
carpenters]. Also I have to mention the P.S. 1 shop and group of people are
very helpful. So it is a very big group of people.
You said: "Architecture is a living thing, a strange mirror that can bring us
back to our own forgotten condition." Can you elaborate on this?
PC: Well, it has to do with the inhabitability of architecture. Architecture
needs to become something that contains other things, to be a backdrop for life
to take place in it and not overwhelm life with a form that can obliterate all
the possibilities and to be open for something unexpected and undetermined. So
we try to find a kind of void in architecture that would allow for a potential
to transform people's lives. We relate architecture to a living thing because
it is in a continuous state of transformation and it has to remain open to it
and allow for that transformation. Also there is an issue of transformation in
time. For example stone and wood don't have responsibility to transform
themselves into stone and wood, but human beings have to transform themselves
into human beings as they grow up in a certain way. Our being is not a given.
So we feel responsible to create something more than just material by lending
our conscience to the things of the world that don't have conscience. In other
words we try to give a certain tension and direction to materials to become
something. In a way it is framework to something that has a potential to happen
within it. So it can be the most important thing because that's where
everything happens and it needs to be designed in a very subtle and receptive
Do you think architecture is similar to telling stories?
PC: Yes, but in a very different way. In modern art there has been a kind of
relinquishing of the narrative and a fixed perspective because it determines a
certain particular reading. So modern art tends to present itself free of a
particular meaning and allow[s] the viewer to bring their own interpretation
into the work. The idea is that the art is incomplete and it is only complete
by the viewer. For example, such objects that have no artistic pretence as a
mirror that reflects the viewer in a group of other figures or a handrail,
attached to a wall that you can lean on or involve the viewer. The opportunity
for narrative is there, but it is not defined with the beginning, middle and
end that proscribe a certain meaning. It is a narrative but open-ended.
Your work is distinguished by the idea of movement through space while
experiencing such phenomena as light, sound, smell and touch. How do you try to
personify your architecture? Is it important to find something unique and your
own in architecture?
PC: Well, to find something unique is the most important thing. We have been
inspired greatly by the work of Steven Holl and his attention to light and
nature of materials. We both were fortunate to work for him and naturally
admire his philosophy. But we also have a different cultural background. I come
from Latin America where the relation of the things with the world is a lot
less mediated. For example, I had a very personal experience with such
elemental things as mud, sky because I spent a lot of time in the country.
That's part of my upbringing. We're always exploring the quality of experience.
We are interested in how objects and materials acquire a certain
June 2006, New York
Opened to the public June 22, 2006
Seoul Performing Arts Center on Nodeul Island
NO TWO NEW YORKERS ARE ALIKE; EVERYONE MOVES TO A DIFFERENT BEAT. WHEN THE WARMUP DJS MATCH TUNES, BEATS FUSE. FORM FOLLOWS FLEXION AND AIR IS SUFFUSED WITH MIST + LIGHT, AS ALL DANCE UNDER A PENUMBRA OF MOIRE.
BEATFUSE! will be constructed as a structure of pervasive interiority, a context to be entered and experienced from within rather than observed from without as object.
WarmUp has developed into an anticipated annual ritual celebration of the city's cosmopolitan culture without losing its soul of neighborhood block party. The summer WarmUp event is filled to capacity with New Yorkers, most of whom are not originally from New York; a quick review of the artists featured in the Greater New York 2005 show AT PS1 reveals that only 13 of 146 included in the exhibition catalog were born in New York. Most of the New York population actually come from somewhere else, looking for something they deem important for their lives, they are seekers. They may or may not find a version of what they seek, but they always contribute the uniqueness of their individuality, their ONENESS to the multifarious culture of the city.
WarmUp is the recurrent moment in the city's annual cycle when this multiplicity converges in one place at one time in one great big happening. Everyone becomes an artist. Each unique voice blends together into a whole for a few moments every summer Saturday without losing its individuality, like two dissimilar songs seamlessly eased into each other by a DJ's masterful beatmatch.
The creation of a space with interiority, a background to the figure of the WarmUp crowds, requires precise architectural operations. To evoke a sense of interior space the proposed structure extends to the boundaries of the site, and matter is spread thin to achieve the most with the least. When we refer to the creation of such space we refer to the physical, but also to what it means to manipulate the things of the world. In keeping with Joseph Beuys’ claim that we could become the revolution by fusing life with art, we aspire to effectively lend a consciousness to the matter enlisted in our construction.
BEATFUSE! is the winning project of the 2006 Young Architects Program organized annually by PS1 Contemporary Art Center and the Museum of Modern Art as the site of their popular Warm Up series. Every Saturday of the summer, the hottest block party in New York City takes place here, an anticipated yearly ritual celebrating music, art and architecture, along with the cosmopolitan diversity of the city’s population. Just like diverse tunes fused seamlessly by the expert maneuvers of the Warm Up DJ’s, thousands of different New Yorkers join in a moment of togetherness without losing their individuality.
The space is partially covered with 10 concertina shells manufactured and assembled in a workshop and later deployed on site. We refer to these shells as concertina, since in their accordion-like capacity to fold into a relatively small size for transportation they resemble concertina devices such as pantographs, household shower mirrors and folding gates. They are modeled and manufactured digitally using a CNC router to achieve their dynamic curved form. By virtue of the thickness of the material proposed these structures would seem unlikely to span the 20 to 30-foot distances required, but by forcing the pieces into curves and connecting them into an irregular grid, we can elicit the emergence of a tension that allows them to adequately reach further than that.
The concertina are covered with a skin of polypropylene mesh scales. They allow wind and rain to move through them without excessively taxing the structure with lateral or lifting loads while providing soft penumbral shade. The inexpensive material has been chosen because it is rigid enough to return to its original position after the wind dies down and yet flexible enough to seamlessly adjust to the curved surfaces of the concertina while overlapping in ways that generate gently nuanced patterns of moiré texture. Through testing and sampling, the project team chose an extruded netting product which elicited similar effects of shadow and moiré as early schematic study models. A simple industrial product of plastic mesh is transformed into a dazzling interiorized canopy via simple connections and repeated forms.
Each concertina shell is unique, but they fuse into each other to create a realm that spans the entire courtyard and creates multiple places of distinctive mood and atmosphere. Each component is different, assembled at varying heights, positions and angles. Nonetheless, all connections are conceptually the same. One single idea runs through the entire project and materializes in the steel brackets which adjust to the conditions of each connection, allowing the wood beams to connect to each other, to the ground, and the concrete courtyard walls, which could not be permanently altered for this temporary installation. All brackets are lasercut out of 1/4” steel and then bent and welded. Each component of the construction–the arch, the bracket, or the concertina shell–is repeated many times. But each instance is distinct and unique, either having a different radius, a different angle, or different proportions. Repetition here avoids monotony and begets uniqueness.
The rich versatility of the qualities of wood and its expressive potential are employed throughout the project. In spite of the modest proportions of the section employed to construct the concertina, the structures are able to span up to 30 feet. The bolted connections force the wood into an unnatural form, eliciting a tensile strength to emanate from its fiber's substance.
This delicate construction requires a rigid frame to dampen undesired vibrations from propagating about the shells and threatening them with destruction. This armature is constructed in very heavy and dense sections of two layers of CNC-routed reconstituted wood panels which have been epoxied and then bolted together on site to define the arches.
The pools are constructed in layers of rigid foam and CDX plywood that are then coated and epoxied for waterproofing. They are conceived as inverted boats, that is, boats that can contain rather than exclude the water. The pool construction system was invented to be easily assembled from CNC-milled parts onsite to build an economical temporary environment that both cooled the shaded areas and provided seating for both shade-seekers and sunbathers.
Water misters, a favorite of WarmUp DJs, are provided throughout the project at six different locations. The misters play an important role in lowering the temperature of the surrounding air. They are protected under three-foot diameter steel mesh hemispheres that resemble giant kitchen strainers. Inside each strainer is a light fixture, which, when turned on the mist will solidify the light beams into constantly changing formless shapes, a phenomena similar to that of light siphoned out into nebulous space by clouds caught atop the Empire State Building on a stormy night.
The WarmUp crowds are an aesthetic experience and therefore their presence must be prolonged. We hope to encourage visitors to stay longer by offering climatic comfort and variety through architecture. Inspired by the original social space of the Roman baths, the tripartite layout of the courtyards have been developed into three distinct temperate environments.
The sandbox gallery is designated as the Caldarium. It has little to no shade, an array of radial chaise lounges for sunbathing and a large soaking pool. The barbecue grill is located here. To enhance the bathing experience, we have produced PS1/MoMA matte black rubber ducks that will float on the pools for ambiance (currently available at the MoMA Design Store).
In the large triangular gallery, as shade lowers the temperature of the ground by deflecting radiation, as pools and misters cool the air by evaporation, and as the concertina shells bring the soothing breeze down to people, the overall effect can lower the temperature by as much as five degrees. This space called the Tepidarium is appropriate for conversation, eating, drinking and impromptu dancing.
Finally, for those who may feel they have already had enough of summer, the small gallery is configured as a Frigidarium. To that end, the walls are lined with inexpensive foil bubble reflective insulation which is also used for the scales of the concertina in this room. Every Saturday morning for the duration of WarmUp, blocks of ice are arranged at the bottom of the wall to create an ice bench.
This project transforms an outdoor concrete-walled courtyard gallery into a playful and dynamic space through the inventive use of common materials and standard building components while utilizing the speed and efficiency of current technologies of prefabrication and production. Entirely digitally fabricated using CNC milled wood and laser-cut steel from emailed 3D files in a completely paperless process, the project was designed in 6 weeks' time and constructed in less than 12 weeks.
The year 2006 marks the ninth summer that PS1 has hosted a combined architectural installation and music series in its outdoor galleries. Inherent in the challenge of this project are constraints of not only budget but time, with competition proposals prepared within six weeks and construction taking place in less than twelve weeks. While such demands in the past have led to solutions tending towards a more sculptural nature, the intent of the constructed gallery installation BEATFUSE! aims to envelop the inhabitant, pushing the experience towards an interiority that suggests a bridge between the realm of art and that of architecture.
New York, March 2006
We experience music as an inhabitable three-dimensional continuous fabric.
Built as an interweaving of melodic lines, we enter it through an immersion in
its progression of harmonies which leads us decisively from one recognizable
place to another.
Not unlike architecture, music is inhabited as an unfolding of time and is made
intelligible by the memory of where we have been and the expectation of where
we may be going. Both such journeys are experienced as a crossing of the
threshold between the behind and the beyond of the void we inhabit, in music as
dissonance, in architecture as chiaroscuro.
SITE/ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
The city that builds an Opera House and a Concert Hall builds a celebration of
the cultural achievements of its population. Current plans for the development
of Seoul extending 15 years into the future envision the gradual definition of
four urban quarters of clear individual character and particular flavor: the
Axis of Ecology and Reunification; the Axis of World Culture; the Axis of
Modern Culture and the Axis of Pop Culture while the Hangang river, cutting
through the city center, is identified as the locus of a further urban
aspiration: The Seoul Cultural Belt. It befits plans for Nodeul Island to
envision its inevitable transformation into an important space for the people
of Seoul both as cultural landmark and public place of urban quality and civic
A chiaroscuro from naked sunlight to the thickest leafy shade connecting the
two extremes of Nodeul Island is proposed as a landscape of dissonance between
the "Primitive" and the "Modern," between diminishing luxuriance and increasing
cultivation. At the quieter deeply shaded end of the island, amongst trees,
rocks, animals and natural phenomena, sits the Amphitheater of Intuition,
dedicated to young people and the adventurous spirit of improvisation and
experimentation. Amidst freedom from tradition and a commitment to constant
renewal, music can retain its primeval link to the supernatural. All the way at
the other end of the island under the sunny sky and the angular shadows of the
Opera House and Concert Hall buildings the Reflection Square will define a
realm in a context of cultural consensus as common property unfolding in the
production of educated works in a dialogue of conscious creation.
Dirt from the building construction excavation is used to form the landscape of
the island and to create berms to each side of the street. The road is
redesigned to create vehicular drop-off points for pedestrians to each of the
newly created parks on both sides of the island through new access ramps and to
provide entry to parking, theater drop-off points and service access all
underground. This arrangement ensures the urban quality of the island as a
public place with no vehicular traffic, while taking advantage of the existing
island shore below flood level, transforming it into spacious underground
facilities with little excavation expense.
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN CONCEPT
Kim Jong-ho's 1861 map of Seoul emphasizes natural and topographic features, in
their rendition they seem to evoke subtle changes in personal mood and lived
experience. The many streams depicted in the map weave together a multiplicity
of topographic conditions, while a certain recurrence of character seems to
hold it all together as if nursed by an inner disquiet, not unlike the shifting
naturalistic harmonies of an Impressionistic composition. The paths of human
movement through the chiaroscuro of Nodeul Island mediate in an similar manner
the disparate conditions of inhabitation of forest, urban square and building
interior. The architectural counterpart of these paths through the landscape
stream over them as diaphanous long thin buildings resting on arcades and
fusing themselves into the denser masses of the Opera House and the Concert
Hall. These buildings house administrative areas, musicians? studios and
individual rehearsal spaces, classrooms, cafeterias and other facilities where
employees can work on the day-to-day tasks that would benefit from natural
sunlight, cross ventilation and rewarding views of the river and the city
beyond. They define courtyard spaces that create meaningful gradations of
openness between exterior and interior while under the arcades visitors can
stroll, linger or gather protected from the rain or excessive sun exposure. In
the evenings the thin buildings broadcast to the whole city their luminous
embrace of Nodeul Island.
The large buildings of the Concert Hall and the Opera House aspire to an almost
musical integration of form and content. As meaning in music resides in a
coherence that lends a sense of inevitability to the ideas, these buildings
seek to find expression in an identity between form and content, between issues
of acoustical conditioning, audience movement, the creation of public space in
the city and the shapes and materials which incarnate them. Both the Concert
Hall and the Opera House enunciate the importance of the entry lobby as a
public urban space almost exterior in nature by virtue of its size and
configuration. As such, these entry spaces are crucially articulated in the
continuum of space experienced, ranging from exposure to raw natural elements
at the far end of the island to the comfort of a seat amongst the audience in
the Concert Hall or the Opera House.
The Concert Hall is conceived as a large portal opening to both sides of the
city across each shore of the Hangang and thus conveying its openness to all.
Upon entry through the large blackened steel and glass enclosures to both
sides, the audience encounters the vast open space of the entry lobby sheltered
by the curving belly of the auditorium's floor suspended overhead. The ceiling
will be lit from the lobby's floor, acting as an expansive iridescent
reflective surface encompassing the entire room. Each of the short ends of the
space is defined by the vertical structural piers that support the auditorium
above; through them the audience will mount stairs and elevators to ascend
while enjoying progressively higher views of the river and city outside. In
between the piers on the lobby level, the ticket booth, coat-check, cafe and
other support facilities will be found.
Inside the auditorium, the floor descends in a bowl-like shape creating the
vineyard seating layout within a room of about 17,000 cubic meters, ideal for
the reverberation time desired of approximately 2 seconds. The roof is composed
of shells which in their convexity reflect sound without concentrated echo,
while the two long side walls contain cavities for audience circulation,
mechanical distribution and stage and house lighting. The auditorium is also
equipped with large double glass windows with frosted interior layers and
black-out equipment in between, if so desired during matinee performances,
sunlight can be allowed in perhaps to more faithfully reproduce period
instrument performances under the conditions of pre-electricity concert halls.
The walls and ceiling of the auditorium will be finished in plaster colored the
kingfisher green "secret color" of Koryo celadon wares and polished to their
same subtle opalescence; the floors and stage side walls will be damask-stained
Acoustically, the hall assumes a shoebox form incorporating a dynamic vineyard
seating arrangement. The strong parallel walls will help promote lateral
reflections as will the upstands to the seating blocks. The ceiling form will
help promote sound diffusion and mixing and will be enhanced with surface
texture as required to meet the acoustical requirements. If amplification is
used in the room, for performances such as Jazz or Classical Guitar, the room
can incorporate variable sound absorbing banners that could descend from the
roof void to cover 90% of the wall area. These will be deployed incrementally
as necessary for the type of performance.
The Opera House is configured as a vertical multi-ring horseshoe space allowing
proximity to the stage and clear sight-lines to the entire audience and
including a 18 meter wide stage equipped with hydraulic lifts, a back stage
with turn table, a total of four side stages and high fly tower. The entry
lobby opens to Reflection Square on one side while perched at the island's edge
overlooking the city on the other. The multiple ramps that access the many
balcony levels in the house develop in the interior, the theme of the thin
buildings that characterize the design of the island and lend the space a
kinetic quality of spectacle with the audience coming and going to and fro the
house during seating and intermission.
The interior walls of the house are entirely finished in a lattice of damask
stained wood panels that can be open for the adjustment of acoustic conditions
through the installation of either absorbent or reflective material. The large
stage apron and blank wall panels to each side will promote the early sound
reflections that guarantee the broadcasting of the voices to the highest seats.
Acoustic requirements and structural resolution coincide in the configuration
of the large cantilevered convex concrete shell roof finished in white plaster
and surrounded by a double enclosure of frosted glass containing mechanical
distribution, stage and house lighting and black-out system. As in the
Auditorium, natural light can be allowed in at suitable moments during the
performance or during intermission. The curved chalky surface of the plaster
ceiling would then reflect sunlight in the reversed manner it reflects sound
from the stage. During evening functions the house lights contained in the
double glass enclosure transform the ceiling into a giant plaster chandelier
which, a lighthouse to the river, announces across the city a performance
The Opera House, shares its facilities with a proposed "House of Change", a
small theater for 400 to 600 people. Located on the top of the building, The
House of Change will be equipped with the latest stage technology and will be
dedicated to electronic music and all forms of avant-garde performing arts. The
Seoul Night Cafe located in its lobby will enjoy a commanding view of the
city’s night skyline.
July 2005, Pablo Castro, OBRA Architects
Interview with Jon
Brunberg, Visual Artist, Stockholm, Sweden
After many years spent contemplating architecture, we
remain unsure of exactly what we seek. Perhaps we suffer from lack of
theoretical conviction, a kind of rational paralysis settles on us when
reaching for definitive answers to the most important architectural questions.
And yet we feel fine about it. Actually, being at a loss seems an invaluable
asset when navigating the murky waters of early design process, with doubt
acting as good counsel when ideas are in flux, progress remains erratic, and
When navigating in darkness, instruments are of vital importance, and the right
tools are essential to reach places we haven’t been to before.
Meaning in architecture seems to rely on possibility rather than fact, as long
as there remains unexpected potential for inhabitation and mode of
construction, projects remain alive. If potential is concretized and exhausted,
interest fades. That seems to make sense, since design deals with what is not
yet, with what has a potential to be.
Our body, as the locus of perception, is always partially unavailable to our
experience of life. Architecture seems similarly limited, and to be known,
demands exploration of behind and beyond, unfolding in time. This essential
void is what we inhabit, and its existence allows all else to be. The tool of
design is three-dimensional representation, and to be accurate, it must bear
semblance to the essential qualities of the architectural void.
Singular perspective views, digital or otherwise, afford a static account of
space. To capture characteristic sequential quality of architectural
experience, we propose a combined use of scale models and drawings. These
drawings can be considered "incorrect" from the point of view of projective
geometry, since they rely less on convergence and more on layering,
transparency and shadow to suggest space. Digitized and lasercut in wood, and
then printed as layers of color, these drawings remain a hybrid of abstraction
and matter, allowing continuous commerce with the limitations and personalities
of things. The models provide a spatial experience and can approximate intended
materials, and are photographed to approximate actual light conditions and
atmospheric effects, but bear limitations on the understanding of void due to
their relative size.
These methods of representation can be developed into perhaps a more precise
tool than static perspectives, or animations, since they do not rely on
mathematical surrogates of reality and allow a similar subjectivity at play in
the actual experience of space to have a role as shifting perspectives,
displaced experiences of colored light, and emotionally distorted impressions
to define image.
Woodcut, the oldest form of mechanically reproduced artwork, constitutes a
layered method in keeping with our experience of deep space, and affords an
awareness of the difficulties that matter imposes on making, sometimes too
easily streamlined by technology.
Like perception, these models and images are not meant to be seen in isolation,
but as defining meaningful sequences that convey the fiction of an inhabitation
that could be.
New York, October 2005
Pablo Castro and Jennifer Lee
Jon Brunberg: What inspired you to take on the
challenge of this particular competition to design the memorial complex on
Pablo Castro: Besides the desire to involve our work in the worthy cause of
honoring those who fought against oppression, we were most interested by the
nature of the challenge at the heart of the project, namely that of turning
memory into built form. Built memory of a kind that can introduce some friction
into the process of forgetting, a most understandable process considering the
horrific nature of events here being memorialized. We saw, in the intention of
creating a memorial structure and recounting the past events in the spatial
narrative of a museum, a basic optimistic attitude we felt compelled to
endorse. Engaging in this kind of project means confining the events in
question to a definitive past, one that has been overcome and is "remembered"
from the vantage point of a new shared situation.
JB: I find the buildings' beehive-like forms to be quite unusual, from my
limited horizon I should add. What was the idea behind the use of that formal
element in the design?
PC: There is a tradition belonging to some African communities of burying the
remains of important deceased community members inside the trunk of old baobab
trees found in the vicinity. Given their imposing presence in the landscape and
vital significance (baobab trees provide for humans and animals in many
different ways) and the fact that they live for thousands of years, the ritual
provides the deceased with a form of "eternal" life. We felt this tradition
provided a fitting and unique model for remembering the martyrs of Apartheid,
and we designed the memorial to be a 30 meter height brick hollowed-out tree
trunk in the shape of a baobab. In its void the sun projects a circling parade
of the ghostly likeness of the martyrs' faces acid-etched on the glass windows
inserted on the walls of the structure.
JB: What material would be used for the facade of the buildings?
PC: The exterior of all the structures in the project is to be finished in
handmade brick. We envisioned the same red dirt of Salvokop Hill to be used as
the raw material from which the bricks are to be baked, effecting a literal
integration of site and building. This would of course require considerable
amounts of labor, but given the relatively high rates of unemployment endemic
in some neighboring communities and considering the scale of the project, we
regarded this as an opportunity to initiate local residents in a new trade and
foster an early emotional bond of interdependence between buildings and
JB: The section drawing published at UIA's website shows the museum, if I
understand it correctly. Is the memorial also included in the main building?
PC: The memorial stands separately at the end of the spiraling path that
defines the ascent to the hill and approach to the structures. It is set at the
top of the hill as a "lone tree" surrounded by the proposed "Garden of
Remembrance" and facing the museum at the other side of the vast "Gathering
Space". The museum in turn is configured as four tree trunks fused together, as
if four trees growing in close proximity to each other had in time fused into
JB: What solution for the memorial did you propose? One of the stills on your
website depicts portraits projected onto the walls in one of the main halls and
I assume that it shows the memorial rather than a museum exhibition.
PC: The proposed solution considers the basic quality of memory as a factor of
lives spent, as a kind of detritus of the experience of passing time, the
dimension of our human awareness. The memorial is built around two different
concepts, the first one regarding space and mass, the mysterious aura of
presence that characterizes all life and is most moving when conveyed through
the expressions of the human face. Here we rely upon the mass of the brick
"baobab" and the luminous portraits in constant motion through the space. The
second one has to do with time, and relies on the "powering" of the memorial
through sunlight and its movement, evoking a new connection to old rituals of
cosmic rhythm and, of course, a "materialization" of the passing of time.
JB: What is the function of the freestanding building on the model?
PC: There are three separate structures proposed for the hill, the memorial on
top, the museum flanking it and the administrative facilities at the bottom. If
you would like to receive additional documentation on the project, we would be
happy to provide it.
JB: You also designed a war memorial in San Jose. What is in your opinion the
challenge with designing memorials that relates to conflict?
PC: The Freedom Park project occupies a special place in the body of our work,
maybe not so much because of the inherent significance of its proposed content
(which it has), but perhaps because it best aligns with the expression of a
dimension that is basic to all of our work. This is the aspect that is hardest
to capture in words, maybe even it has something to do with the impulse people
have to build memorials or, if we can be allowed to go a little bit further, to
commission Architecture and expect to get something that transcends simple
construction. In the case of memorials or museums, a more secular
interpretation of a program fulfilling similar functions, it is easier to find
acceptance for the introduction into the project of considerations relating
aspects of existence that are perhaps obscure and mysterious to most people in
our times and therefore regarded as eccentric and dispensable when discussing
On the other hand, we do share an ambivalence about memorials, monuments and
museums, to the extent that they can be seen as an effort to materialize and
fix conditions of privilege and power. In that sense, we have tried to
disassociate our work from traditional monumentalizing architectural
strategies. Choosing instead to focus on fostering a relationship between the
built work and found (natural) processes and presences, and also to define the
forms as enmeshed in a process of spatial and temporal development in which we
have to invest our bodies to comprehend. Curved interpenetrating forms which
cannot be exhausted when perceived from stationary points of view and require
constant repositioning in three dimensions. These forms are typically equipped
with sweeping ramps that enlist visitors as part of the work itself and
transcend perspectival experience stretching perception to incorporate changing
sound, touch, and muscular exertion.
JB: How do you, in the design process, deal with and take into consideration
the strong emotional forces that I assume must inevitably be a part of these
kinds of projects?
PC: We can perhaps consider that if well understood, all architectural projects
should elicit the same kind of emotional forces you mention in relationship to
the particular type of project we are discussing here. Architecture has the
ability to convey the immanence of lived experience because it proposes as its
subject matter the possibility of alternative modes of inhabiting a hollow
object and also because its experience must by necessity unfold in time. It
then becomes particularly suited to be considered as a metaphor for memory. It
is perhaps difficult to say how to address the emotional component of a work
that is supposed to touch people's lives, and we rely on an intuitive process
that unfolds in a dialectic of trial and error until we "know" that what we
have is good.
In his work Marcel Proust made a clear distinction between memoire voluntaire
and memoire involuntaire, the former responds to intellectual promptings and
retains no real trace of the past experience, presenting the past as
irreparably beyond the rescuing efforts of the intelligence. The latter
discovers the past as "unmistakably present in some material object, though we
have no idea which one it is."
11 October 2005 Interview with Jon Brunberg, Visual Artist, Stockholm,
The Polynational War Memorial web site: www.war-memorial.net ... more
about freedom park
Introduction to OBRA ARCHITECTS Monograph, AADCU Book
Series of Contemporary Architects Studio Report in the United States, China
Architecture and Building Press
"Eladio Dieste's Latin American
Architecture is not a thing. Subject to perpetual
transformation, architecture exists in time and lacks the completeness
characteristic of things. The city, as architecture's "natural" milieu, expands
its unfinished quality to the entire space of human existence. Architecture may
be instead what allows for things to be. Appealing to our attention upon the
background of reality, things demand to be held by a void. Architecture's
essential emptiness provides the void in which we perceive the things that are.
Architecture may have originally developed as a second thought, not meant for
its own sake, it may have grownout of the desire for emptiness needed to
support all other things. This we can sense in the architecture by subtraction
of ancient cave buildings. Lacking the simple constant presence of things but
providing the condition of their being, we can think of architecture not as an
object but instead as a subject, the one human creation that most accurately
resembles ourselves. This intuition was present in Louis Kahn's desire: "I want
to give the wall a consciousness."
If there is a consciousness of architecture, perhaps architecture differs from
construction in similar measure to how we differ from animals, by virtue of a
self-awareness that confronts us with the precariousness of being. Construction
is the discipline through which we master all building techniques. These
techniques are applied to the resolution of pragmatic problems, and
construction exists for the resolution of those problems: it finds its reason
for being in them and is, because of this, unaware of itself. Architecture is
presented with the resolution of its own set of tasks, and its value will be
commensurate to the importance of the tasks undertaken. But in trying to
satisfy, it will transcend the tasks themselves, creating meaning and in this
way becoming its own reason for being. We can say that it stands mediating
between us and the world, and by doing so it speaks to us about our lives with
a unique ineffable voice.
Animals, plants and even rocks and minerals, in their dormant vitality, enjoy
an existence that is given. A swallow endures no responsibility for being
itself; aware neither of past or future, its existence unfolds in the perpetual
certainty of the present. Those with consciousness enjoy no such privilege;
their being is always incomplete and granted only through the constant effort
to become. Consciously or not, every lived moment is an investment made towards
the creation of tomorrow. Albert Camus described this condition in The Rebel by
affirming that "Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is." Such
refusal, the desire to become, is a promise made to ourselves, a promise that
we can only fulfill in time.
The essence of time is its own passing, Henri Bergson writes in Matter and
Memory that all of our past is potentially available to our remembrance. This
seems paradoxical, since at any time we only have access to a limited number of
memories. But were we to be constantly aware of the past in its entirety, we
would have to endure constant confrontation with all of our guilt, regrets and
perhaps even an inability to fall asleep.
Aware of having hopelessly forgotten many things, we are sometimes suddenly
able to remember, while dreaming or during moments of penetrating reverie, what
we thought irretrievably forgotten, or even what we were never even fully aware
But time is always now, the not-yet's and no-longer's do not exist except
inside consciousness, where they find a field propitious to their peculiar
being. The passing of time coincides with the form of consciousness, and we
could advance the equation:
Architecture = consciousness = time
The relationship between passing time and architecture is reciprocal, not only
does time provide a realm for architecture to be, but architecture also endows
time with spatial intelligibility. In his short story "Funes el Memorioso,"
Borges tells us of a young man who, after falling from a horse and momentarily
losing consciousness, finds himself entrapped by perfect perception and an
inability to forget. Unable to ignore unnecessary details to be able to
generalize, he cannot think. He commits his time to an attempt at harnessing
the overwhelming reveries into a private language. Resolving to reduce each
lived day in his past to approximately 70,000 memories, he assigns numbers to
each of them, but soon, he surrenders the plan realizing it would consume more
time than he has left in his life. Past experience constitutes a layering upon
which our lives are made meaningful, but Funes understands that memories do not
suffice, and that to become meaningful they demand an organizing armature, an
If forgetting is a defense mechanism, then to reach deep into the pocket of
memory we must relinquish rational control and give in to reverie as we give in
to sleep after a hard day of work. Early in the design of an architectural
project, ideas are in flux, progress remains erratic and possible outcome
uncertain. Forms seem too diffuse and unstable to be effectively handled by
efforts of the intelligence. But the project does not wait and encourages a way
forward that puts action in the place of thinking, action then is freed from
thinking, and enters a realm similar to that of dream, both rationally
incomprehensible and liberating. It is at such moments that the projects
undergo decisive transformations, assuming lives of their own. Becoming
increasingly independent from our conscious desires and original hopes, they
begin to incarnate the future.
Works of architecture are always in progress, their becoming extending beyond
the time of their construction. As the results of a process with no end in
sight, we can choose to think of their development as co-substantial with their
being and therefore, paradoxically, always finished. For the same reasons,
architecture, aware of itself, is faced with the impossibility of stylistic
consistency. The accumulated sequence of past moments lies in the memory of
architecture, and as one moment precedes the next, each lends a unique layer of
meaning to every project. The changing milieu resulting from this condition
suggests that an architecture that repeats itself without substantial change
must be either dead or inhuman.
Meaning as accumulated time emanates from site and project brief as aural
emissions suggesting the consistent structure of things of the world but never
congealing as concrete form. In the same way we expect the face of everyone we
know to include a nose and a mouth, but we cannot assume that their
personalities will be identical. The moment of incarnation of each project
presents both a vista into a continual unfolding-vulnerable to the encounters
with things of the world-and a unique manner of coming to be.
Architecture's void and its willingness to clarify life by interposing itself
between us and the world are both dependent on a crucial quality of space, its
depth. Because they constitute our point of view of the world, our bodies
remain unknown to ourselves; they remain only partially included in the field
of what we perceive. Because of this, we are typically surprised by our own
appearance when we first see ourselves in film or hear our voice on tape, and
we fail to recognize ourselves.
The body of architecture is similarly limited, either present as an exterior or
as an interior, and in both cases partially unavailable as depth, a "beyond" or
a "behind," only knowable through a movement of endless investigation.
The design process tries to capture this indeterminable nature of reality and
envision the repercussions of possible interventions. Here, physical models
provide the best approximation to the mystery of the changing experience of
depth. Digital renderings and animations are based on precisely known geometric
relationships projected on a flat surface and, although useful for other
purposes, fail to provide a reliable approximation of the real by virtue of
lacking both depth and indeterminacy.
The paradoxical life of architecture is a void made present by a body that
cannot be totally apprehended. Losing itself to the pursuit of objects, it
becomes indirectly present as a layering of time. This strange quality gives
architecture the ability to suggest the universal in the immediacy of the
familiar and concrete. De-familiarized, the things of the world are handed back
to us free of the obscuring varnish of accumulated habit, and we can then see
them for the first time. In Art as Technique Viktor Shklovsky advocates an
"increase [in] the difficulty and length of perception because the process of
perception is an aesthetic end in itself and must be prolonged."
De-familiarizing or the act of "making difficult" critically depends on the
observance of limits. The de-familiarization of architectural form must, by
necessity, stop at the threshold of the unrecognizable. Beyond that point we
enter the realm of fantasy, reality disappears and de-familiarization becomes
pointless. An arrested strangeness can only become demiurgic by relying on the
precise measure of its application: too little and the trivial remains as such,
too much and the strange becomes idiosyncratic. The significance of the
resulting phenomenon relies on the inexplicable similarity between the familiar
and the strange.
Rediscovering strangeness in architecture is like making the world anew,
turning it into mirror or speculum, where we see ourselves and wonder at the
rediscovery. Describing the way reflection straddles consciousness and the
world, Maurice Merleau-Ponty writes in The Phenomenology of Perception:
"Reflection does not withdraw from the world towards the unity of consciousness
as the world's basis; it steps back to watch the forms of transcendence fly up
like sparks from a fire." Architecture is the spatial vehicle of this
speculation. It presents us with a vista of our life and reminds us of our own
existence as we proceed to forget it, while becoming, in our image, the
incarnation of an idea.
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 13 February 2005
Paper presented as part of the VIIIth International
DOCOMOMO Conference held in September 2004 at Columbia University, New York
Eight Points of Architettura
Like many of those familiar with the work of Eladio Dieste (1917-2000), I was
first drawn to it by its uncompromising originality and by the freedom of its
form (fig.1). Upon closer examination it became clear that these apparently
free forms had been created through a disciplined submission to rigorous design
parameters. This paradox was heightened by the fact that all of these novel
structures are built in brick, one of the oldest and perhaps most common
building materials throughout the world.
Brick is indeed a common material particularly in Latin America, and brick
construction techniques are familiar to most native laborers. Made with clay,
water and heat, brick is abundantly available in Uruguay, an agrarian country
of fertile plains with few mineral resources where the necessity of import
renders steel and cement very costly. Reinterpreted using contemporary
structural theory and construction methods, brick became for Dieste the basic
unit of a wholly original and efficient structural shell system.
But perhaps from a Latin American point of view, the most startling paradox
upon first encounter with this work is that it is an authentic home grown
phenomenon, rooted as it is in the availability of contextual materials and
local labor. One refers here to an endemic complex of inferiority affecting
Latin American societies when considering aspects of scientific and technical
development. There are numerous reasons for this, but a conspicuous symptom is
the pervasive notion that what is needed has already been developed elsewhere
and should be promptly found and uncritically adopted. Such is the norm not
only to allow for the solution of the practical problem in question, but also
because processing the latest (de punta) imported technology provides the
element of social distinction that enables a rise above the local, supposedly
In contrast, Dieste’s work assumes a rare position: one that, without
ignoring technological development occurring elsewhere, seeks to enlist the
richness of direct contact with local reality, with artisans and laborers, with
local resources and traditional techniques (fig.2). The objective here is not
to revert to primitive forms of production or lifestyles, but to develop a
veritable alternative sense of modernity, one in which the criteria to measure
success is not ruled by the market’s quantified understanding of gain and
loss, but by the potential to achieve human happiness.
Analytically related to early concrete shell structures, Dieste’s work in
brick combined the advantages of abundant availability and an able workforce
with the benefit of longer possible spans and smaller supports due to the
material’s lighter specific gravity. Brick is also easier to shape into
curves than concrete and exhibits advantageous environmental properties that
allow interior humidity control. When a brick vault is laid onto formwork, more
than 90% of the material is already hard; thus, brick vaults can be unmolded
faster with significant impact on speed and efficiency of construction.
An avant-garde of the south
In 1946 as a young engineer, Dieste collaborated with the Catalonian architect
Antoní Bonet to design and build the Berlinghieri House in Punta Ballena, on
the Uruguayan Atlantic coast (fig.3). After working for Le Corbusier in Paris
in 1936, Bonet moved to Argentina in 1938 during the Spanish Civil War. In
Buenos Aires, Bonet helped to organize the Grupo Austral with the intent of
mobilizing public opinion in favor of the Modern Movement’s basic tenets
and of critically re-evaluating the production of the local architectural
establishment which they accused of mechanical professionalism and lack of
utopian inspiration. Bonet first proposed to roof the Berlinghieri House with a
series of thin concrete vaults similar to the Freyssinet system vaults featured
in many of Le Corbusier’s projects since Maisons Monol (1920).
Bonet had worked on an early version of Maison Jaoul while at Le
Corbusier’s studio. Instead of the brick vaults of the final built house,
early drawings show an undulating hollow slab apparently proposed as reinforced
concrete. Although Dieste had experience with concrete shells, he had never
worked with brick vaults before. He proposed to use brick in place of concrete
due to its lighter weight. Bonet seems to have opposed the idea initially, but
In 1934 as a young man, Dieste met Joaquin Torres-García (1874-1949), an artist
with connections in the European avant-garde who had befriended Dieste’s
family upon returning to Uruguay (fig.4). Torres-García had spent 43 years
living and working in New York and Europe, and while abroad had studied in
Barcelona and assisted Gaudí in the work of the Sagrada Familia and the
renovation of the Cathedral of Palma de Mallorca. He met both Theo Van Doesburg
and Mondrian who were to figure prominently in the development of his theory of
Arte Constructivo. Back in Uruguay he initiated the Taller Torres García, and
in February 1935 he wrote his manifesto, La Escuela del Sur, the founding
statement for Constructivismo Universal intended as a holistic credo of all the
arts and crafts of the [Latin] Americas:
"...School of the South; because in reality our north is the South. There can
be no north for us, but in opposition to our South. So now we set the map up
side down, and have a precise idea of our position...The ships, when they leave
to go north, go down, not up as before. Because north is now down. And sunrise,
when facing our South, shall be to our left...instead of exchanging what is
ours for what is not (an unforgivable snobbism), we must make what is not ours
part of our own substance...¡down with simulation, down with theatre, down with
what lacks meaning, or has no logical reason for being, because the time for
rehearsals has passed! Today is time for very concrete and defined things. In
synthesis: we want to build with art (which is to say: with knowledge) and with
our own materials. And here I give the word "art" its highest assertion: of
building well, of well making with the rules... We can now see that, our need
to create an art, as it has always been everywhere, coalesces in a decorative
expression. But here decoration will not be embellishment; will be art, of
unquestionable social function. That is to say, an art with authentic roots:
real." [De Torres C., El Taller Torres-García, The School of the South and its
Legacy, University of Texas Press, 1992.]
This determination to create an art both anchored in the material and human
resources of the region yet anti-colonialist in its social dimension seems to
have profoundly influenced Dieste.
Torres-García introduced Dieste to the work of Antoní Gaudí. Like Dieste, Gaudí
was a devout Catholic, and both men seem to have shared a similar moral
position vis-a-vis the integrity of the work of architecture. Gaudí’s
lifelong search for an "original" synthesis of Roman-Gothic and Islamic
tradition can be compared with the rigor of Dieste’s concept of Cosmic
Economy, which he defined as "being in agreement with the profound order of
things." Gaudí’s formal manipulations that sought to overcome structural
inconsistencies of the Gothic cathedral also achieved the manipulation of
light, a role traditionally performed in Islamic architecture by applied
ornamentation. It is interesting to note that Gaudí’s favorite building
system was that of the Catalonian vault or voltes de maó de pla, the indigenous
vaulting system consisting of several layers of thin brick or rajoles held
together with plaster mortar.
A clear predecessor of Dieste’s work is the Crypt of the Güell Colony in
Santa Coloma de Cervello (1908-1914). Shaped into hyperbolic paraboloids and
ruled surfaces, roof, walls and columns became a new synthesis of improved
structural performance, light modulation and acoustic control. Gaudí resolved a
complex problem of structural analysis through empirical methods using a 1:10
scale funicular model, to insure development of only compression stresses
throughout the structure.
Dieste developed two types of vaulted roof structures: the self-supporting
vault (bóveda autoportante) and the Gaussian vault (bóveda Gausa). The
self-supporting vault (fig.5) can be described as a barrel shell of catenary
cross-section which by virtue of its geometry allows only uniform compressible
stresses in the cross direction (vault action) and, because of its rigidity and
height, is capable of resisting bending stresses (beam action). Depending on
the size and span of the vault, beam action is sometimes supplemented with
Economical and efficient in their rational use of material, traditional barrel
shells work as whole units, requiring the completion of an entire unit of
formwork corresponding to each vault. This formwork cannot be reused until the
cast vault is hardened, significantly reducing the overall economy of the
project. While under construction, self-supporting vaults are supported at
their valleys with light scaffolding. The already-laid brick vaults support
themselves through vault action while the work of post-stressing continues
above them. At the same time, formwork can be slid along to shape adjacent
portions of the same vault, greatly increasing the speed of construction and
reducing the cost of formwork. After the post-stressing is complete, the
scaffolding is removed and the structure develops beam action.
At the bus station in Salto (1974) in northern Uruguay, travelers and machines
are sheltered under a series of self-supporting vaults that cantilever 39 feet
to each side and rest on a single row of central columns.
The Self-supporting vault with its catenary section is designed to resist only
compression stresses when developing vault action. In order to span longer
lengths, the Gaussian vault was developed based on this same principle (fig.6).
For long spans, risks to structural stability depend not on the ability of the
vault to support dead weight, but rather on the development of flexion stresses
due to uneven loads and on buckling due to a vault’s thin section. The
rigidity of the vault and the key to its structural success is the varying
height of the series of catenary curves which undulate from zero at the end
supports to their maximum at the keystone. This gradual height variation is
itself a catenary trajectory when considered in cross section. Dieste’s
invention thus defines a double curvature shell surface similar in rigidity to
that of hyperbolic paraboloid shells.
In contrast to concrete structural shells which must cure completely before
vault framework can be removed and reused, Gaussian vaults require only that
the joint mortar between bricks—roughly 2% of the vault
material—semi-harden before the formwork can be dismantled. This allows
hardening times as short as three hours for spans of up to 45 feet and 14 hours
for spans up to 150 feet, enabling a continuous rhythm of work. When formwork
is removed, the joints in the vaults have not totally hardened and are actually
semi-articulations. At this stage in the construction process the vault’s
elasticity component is lower than it will be when totally hardened. Each time
the formwork is removed, the sequence thereby effects a load test under the
most unfavorable conditions (fig.7).
The original bidding competition for the design and construction of the Julio
Herrera & Obes Warehouse (1979) situated by the docks in the port of
Montevideo called for the demolition of an existing original structure and the
construction of a 42,000 square foot storage facility. The firm of Dieste &
Montañéz SA won the competition by proposing to retain the brick masonry walls
of the original structure, reinforce them against wind and build a new roof
using a Gaussian vault roof system. The new "south-light" shells span a
distance of 164 feet with a total thickness of approximately 4.75 inches, of
which 4 inches are comprised of the thickness of hollow brick. The total cost
of construction including new fenestration, concrete floor and painted interior
finish was the equivalent of approximately US $120,000 (1979).
The Church of Atlántida (1959-60)
In 1952 Dieste received a commission to build a small church near the resort
city of Atlántida 40 km from Montevideo (fig.8). The church vicinity is home to
a humble population of construction workers, farmers and maids employed by a
nearby resort. Work was begun in 1958 and completed in 1960 for the equivalent
of 3 US$ per square foot.
Dieste, a builder of pragmatic structures, was not regarded by his clients (nor
by himself) as an architect. Nonetheless, it was precisely the rigor inherent
to the practice of building utilitarian structures—along with a devout
Christian’s knowledge of the liturgy and ceremonial traditions of the
Catholic Church—that enabled him to achieve this vision.
The numerical equation characterizing the vault surface is so complex that
Dieste described its structural analysis as "mathematically inapproachable."
Although it was impossible to predict the exact behavior of the structure in
mathematical terms, Dieste knew that maximum stresses affecting the vault did
not exceed 220 psi and that the vault capacity to resist buckling exceeded 590
psi. Vault stresses are transmitted to the tension rods through beams running
atop each of the side walls. These beams, absorbed into the vault fabric and
cantilevered on the exterior as coping, become integral to both roof and wall,
a detail exemplifying the sophisticated simplicity Dieste was able to achieve
(fig.9). Absence of auxiliary "transitional" elements preserves simple
expression and allows interplay of the whole to transcend the sum of its parts.
Here, a minimal margin of error in construction of the wall becomes critical
since the vaults rest directly atop and the point of contact between the two
In the Latin America of the early 60’s, proprietary steel-stressing
technology was nonexistent, and consequently Dieste developed his own
prestressing method using loops of steel cable laid across tops or valleys of
vaults (fig.10). Loops were embedded in the mortar at vault ends and then
pinched or pulled at the middle with a jack to achieve the desired tension.
Mechanical jacks with the necessary configuration could not be found, so using
a common truck jack, Dieste built an equipo de postensado. He refers to the
less technical considerations that guided design of this tool:
"In the equipo de postensado the flanges of the two "U" sections have been
clipped to adapt its form to the moments. Here the intention was more
instinctively expressive than a simple rational response to the need for
resistance. I can affirm that when assembled and in use, the equipment has the
quality of abstract sculpture." [Eladio Dieste, "La conciencia de la forma," in
Antonio Jiménez Torrecillas, ed., Eladio Dieste 1943-1996 (exhibition
catalogue), Junta de Andalucía: Sevilla, 2001.]
This instinctive will to express that is intrinsic to resistive mechanical
parts shaped as stress diagrams is also borne of a different variety of
resistance: that which Torres García so eloquently conveys in his map and which
is latent in the equipo de postensado, its heart improvised from a common truck
jack. In Dieste’s work this resistance is manifest in alternative
possibilities for industrial development, methods rooted in indigenous
conditions which are not only respected but transformed into a constructive
presence. In Dieste and in his work, this resistance becomes an unwavering and
relentless will to re-analyze and re-invent.
New York, New York, 28 September 2004
Lecture given on the occasion of a solo exhibit of work by
OBRA Architects at the Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, Rhode
© 2000-2012 OBRA Architects Pablo Castro Jennifer Lee
The term "Architettura Povera" is transposed from the
famous description of "Arte Povera" made by Germano Celant when writing about a
group of young artists working in Italy in the late sixties. The group, more
than working under the protective conceptual umbrella of any defined manifesto,
shared a disposition of disdain towards preconceived artistic principles. They
were not only weary of theoretical frameworks to define the art, but also of
any defined artistic language, which was viewed by them as more of an
impediment to become intimate with the things of the world than an aid, in that
sense. They tended to use the simplest materials found in nature, for example,
metal, dirt, water, rivers, land, snow, fire, glass, air, stone, leaves,
newspaper, and also, light, weight, electricity, measurement, stress, people,
time, smell, and horses.
The materials were invariably left uncovered and relied on the specificity of
their material substance for their effect. Rather than an exhaustive review of
the works of Arte Povera, we recall these artists for their willingness to
attempt an erasure of distinction between doing art and living. We would like
to offer a consideration of Arte Povera in relationship to architecture to
provide a kind of sympathetic lens through which to look at our recent work.
The term "povera" or "poor" coincides with a desire to avoid material gloss and
to get as close as possible to the elemental being of the matter involved, but
in this consideration and as employed by Celant has more to do more with a
self-imposed limitation of choices and assumptions. Or, as Gide would have it,
"Art is a collaboration between God and the artist, and the less the artist
does, the better."
We would like to provide eight principles, albeit somewhat un-Arte Povera to
suggest such an ordering, and therefore we propose eight PROVISIONAL principles
underlying the work.
1. We are doomed from the start.
"To be an artist is to fail, as no other dare fail." Beckett
We work to achieve certain mysterious moments of rare correspondence between an
initial act of intuition and what would seem to be a real "ideal object" with a
unique presence. Naturally, this kind of work is perpetually besieged by doubt.
One aspect of the distinction between architecture and everyday lived reality
that would be befitting to an Architettura Povera would be a treatment of the
sense of time, analogous to the way we experience it in reality. How do you
work in architecture with an idea of time that is different from the time of
clocks and watches, the time of minutes and seconds, time chopped up and
quantified, with rather time as it is felt, this chronological space that we're
in and we can't escape from? It is both a reassuring and a terrifying
predicament. For example, in the case of the project of the Freedom Park
Memorial, how do we achieve that sense of time about which Spinoza proclaimed,
"We know and feel that we are eternal." How do you do something like that in
architecture? From the outset we are doomed to failure.
2. To be honest with you, we always do the same thing.
We aspire to extend the intentions of our work from project to project,
constantly looking for the possibility to address the same problems, leaving
behind any orthodox notion of regionalism or site specificity. It is precisely
because we always try to do the same thing that projects are very different
from each other. The infinite variety of the nature of things is responsible
for the difference between them. We might try to reinvent the wheel, but we
always are trying to make the same wheel, it just comes out differently with
3. We are unable to ever finish anything.
If one behaves as human beings typically do, with an objective in mind, one
wants to get somewhere, arrive at something, achieve certain goals. Then all
things become objectified, everything becomes related to those goals, and time
is flattened. But, as we've pointed at in our first principle, we have very
slim chances of success anyway, so why not simply postpone the idea of
achieving anything? Why not scrap all objectives? Or even better, why not make
the effort of trying to do whatever there is to be done the objective in and of
itself? As Borges said it, much more beautifully: "Every step you take is the
goal you seek." So the work is never finished, or even better, it is always
complete. Then the objective and the work of pursuit itself become one and the
same; action and life become one, the work never finished, and reality
infinite. Time is simply filled with a sequence of things that one does to
perfect the work, forward and back, coinciding with the duration of natural
4. Make sure to only talk about food and drink.
Kierkegaard said about his hero Socrates, that he always talked exclusively
about food and drink, but really he was talking about the infinite, while the
others spent all of the time talking about the infinite in the loudest voices,
while they really were only talking about food and drink. We believe that there
is a deep sense of practicality that pervades the best architecture and that,
well understood, summons that vertigo of the infinite much better than anything
else. The infinite, as we know, can be infinitely large or infinitely small,
and as such it is present in everything. Nothing converges to the essence of
architecture as the potential clarified by the inhabitation it may suggest.
5. Our designs will be bettered by others.
One important aspect of a "povera" outlook is an interest for the living things
of the world. The artists became interested in animals, plants, and even in the
apparently dormant vitality of rocks and minerals, and of course in themselves
and others. In that light a project must be left "open" to that vitality which
then will have an opportunity to manifest itself by changing the architecture
in both reversible and irreversible ways as time passes. When such openness is
of a reversible nature, it may simply have to do with appropriately staging the
potential of inhabitation. In the case of irreversible change, it has more to
do with growth as analogous to biological growth, that is, not by "fragments,"
which beget monstrosity and deformity, but rather by "moments" in a process of
6. Maybe it is good not to be understood.
The Povera artist chooses the hard life of living amongst things, aspiring
everyday to travel the distance that separates our knowledge from the essence
of things. This is a trip undertaken in solitude. Every thing which exists,
once known, can perform a function of communication; it has the potential to be
conceptually understood and also bears with it the potential to become a sign.
That sign is one more obstacle in the search for the true knowledge of things;
that sign is one more enemy in the effort to attain an understanding of
essences. In the 1930s, Ortega y Gasset spoke of the megaphone and the radio as
the new enemies of man. Unrecognizable things-obscurity-point our consciousness
in unknown directions, expanding the horizon of experience away from the
familiar. Or, as Germano Celant, considering the alternative, put it, "Moving
within linguistic systems to remain language translates into a form of cultural
kleptomania that stifles the vitality of real daily life."
7. If you want to do good architecture you have to be gullible.
St. Augustine said, "Faith is believing what you do not see; the reward of
faith is to see what you believe." It is well known that the worst enemies of
faith are the same as the worst enemies of art: skepticism and relativism.
Skepticism suspects that nothing is true; relativism claims that everything can
be true. They are both false. The belief in the effective existence of the
object of perception or imagination is an aspect of their essence and the
foundation of everything for us.
8. If you can't come up with anything, you are probably thinking too much.
Embodiments of energy and the vital essence of all things were cornerstones of
the works of Arte Povera, centering on an interest for the lives of animals and
their existence directed by instinct as non-conceptual yet marvelous adaptation
to vital problems. Intuition as a method of essential inquiry is related to the
idea of instinct. Thought deals with things that have already happened, things
executed and completed. If I move my arm, and I think about it, I break it up
into moments of that movement. Intuition, instead, happens simultaneously with
the moment lived, and thus it is aware of processes in their very unfolding.
"Art is a collaboration between God and the artist, and the less the artist
does the better." André Gide (1869-1951)
"To be an artist is to fail, as no other dare fail..."
Samuel Beckett (1906-1989). "Three Dialogues," by Samuel Beckett and Georges
Duthuit, p. 21, in Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Martin
Esslin, Prentice-Hall (1965).
"Yet it is not possible that we should remember that we existed before our
body, for our body can bear no trace of such existence, neither can eternity be
defined in terms of time, or have any relation to time. But, notwithstanding,
we feel and know that we are eternal."
Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677), "Part V, On the Power of the Understanding, or
of Human Freedom," in Ethics, trans. by R.H.M. Elwes (1883), MTSU Philosophy
WebWorks Hypertext Edition, 1997.
"Every step you take is the goal you seek."
Jorge Luis Borges, Collected Fictions, trans. by Andrew Hurley, Penguin Books,
1999, pp. 504-507. For the original Spanish version, La rosa de Paracelso, see
Borges, Obras Completas, Tomo III, Emecé, 1996, pp. 387-390.
"Faith is believing what you do not see; the reward of faith is to see what you
Saint Augustine (354-430), Sermons, 43, 1.
9 April 2004